Summary: Nations and Nationalism is an important book in the historiography on nationalism as it is one of the best accounts by a Marxist of the development of nations. Hobsbawm defines nationalism as "primarily a principle which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent" (9). He argues that nations are a modern construction and that they are not unchanging social entities. Hobsbawm views the development of nations as "situated at the point of intersection of politics, technology and social transformation" (10) and he argues that they must be seen as such. He claims that nations have traditionally been understood as top-down constructions and argues that they must also be looked at from the bottom up. Building on this idea, he claims that: 1) ideologies of states are not guides to how the people feel; 2) we cannot assume that most people place national identity above other identities which constitute the social being; and, 3) that national identification changes over time. Finally, Hobsbawm argues that the nationalism in developed nations has not been adequately studied. Hobsbawm spends particular time on the importance of language. He places particular importance on the development of class consciousness which, in turn, led to the development of the mass politics which made nations possible.[ E. Zuelow ]
The Internet promises to have particularly far-reaching effects on cognition. In a paper published in 1936 , the British mathematician Alan Turing proved that a digital computer, which at the time existed only as a theoretical machine, could be programmed to perform the function of any other information-processing device. And that’s what we’re seeing today. The Internet, an immeasurably powerful computing system, is subsuming most of our other intellectual technologies. It’s becoming our map and our clock, our printing press and our typewriter, our calculator and our telephone, and our radio and TV.